The beginning of the end of German Jewry


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4 December 1933

Expulsion of Fritz Dispeker from the German Bar Association

The German Bar Association was among the numerous "ideologically aligned" organizations and associations that in 1933 adopted rules explicitly excluding Jews from their ranks. In a registered letter dated 4 December 1933, the bar association, citing the new charter it had adopted on 30 September, expelled the lawyer Fritz Dispeker (1895–1986) with immediate effect. The letter explained that "only lawyers of German (Aryan) blood" were permitted to be and remain members of the association. For Fritz Dispeker, who ran an office in Munich together with his father, Siegfried, this news constituted a further humiliation and a dire threat to his livelihood.

In April 1933 the Nazis issued the Law on Admission to the Bar, which forced all Jewish lawyers to reapply for their work permits. Only those who had received their licenses before 1914 or had fought on the front during the First World War were permitted to continue practicing law.

This exemption applied to Fritz Dispeker, who was a veteran, meaning he was able to continue working in his profession. However, his client base declined rapidly in 1933 and by 1936 he was forced to close his practice.

In 1938 Fritz Dispeker managed to immigrate to Great Britain, where he worked as a secretary for an electrical company until his retirement. He never practiced law again.

Lea Weik

Categorie(s): associations | frontline soldiers | lawyers | Munich
Registered letter expelling Fritz Dispeker from the German Bar Association, sent by the head of the Reich Professional Group of Lawyers, Berlin, 4 December 1933
Gift of Brigitte Komischke