In an Instant
Photographs by Fred Stein
In an Instant: Photographs by Fred Stein
This retrospective presented Fred Stein’s prolific, many-layered body of work for the first time in Germany, exhibiting more than 130 black-and-white photographs, including street shots of Paris and New York as well as a great many portraits.
To illuminate the photographer’s life and approach, the exhibit also featured private documents, original prints, and contact sheets.
An instant can make the difference – whether in life or in photography. For the photographer Fred Stein, it was those brief moments that determined his life, both personally and professionally.
Fred Stein was born in Dresden in 1909, the son of a rabbi. When the Nazis took power, the committed socialist was forced to give up his job as a lawyer and leave Germany. Under the pretext of taking a honeymoon trip, he escaped to Paris with his wife Lilo in 1933.
There he faced the challenge of building a new livelihood from scratch. Inspired by a Leica 35 mm camera – Fred and Lilo Stein’s wedding gift to each other – Fred Stein chose photography as his new profession.
In Paris, Fred Stein very soon established his own photography studio. From 1935 on, he contributed to several exhibitions with renowned photographers including Ilse Bing, Brassaï, Man Ray, Dora Maar, and André Kertész.
After the war broke out, the Steins were forced to flee a second time with the young daughter, born in 1938
They reached New York in 1941 on one of the last ships out. In the United States, Fred Stein resumed his photography, now using a medium-format Rolleiflex camera as well as the Leica. These easy-to-use cameras allowed him to stroll through the streets capturing the city and its people in brief but critical instants. All his life, he concentrated on street scenes and portraits.
|1909||Alfred "Fred" Stein is born in Dresden on 3 July, son of religion teacher Eva Stein (née Wollheim) and rabbi Leopold Stein|
|1919–1927||Attends König Georg High School in Dresden
Member of the socialist youth movement and of the Jewish youth association Die Kameraden (The Comrades)
|1927–1932||Studies law in Heidelberg, Berlin, and Leipzig; clerkships in Dresden and Bautzen
Member of the Socialist Workers’ Party of Germany (SAPD), a left-wing breakaway from the Social Democratic Party
|1933||Antisemitic restrictions on work mean he is dismissed from his legal clerkship and his doctoral thesis is rejected
August: Marries Liselotte "Lilo" Salzburg
October: Flees to Paris
|From 1934||Residence in Paris
Shoots street scenes and portraits with the Leica
Establishes his own photography studio
|1935||First joint exhibition with renowned photographers including Ilse Bing, Brassaï, Man Ray, Dora Maar, and André Kertész|
|1938||Birth of daughter Marion|
|1939–1941||Deportation and internment in various camps for "enemy aliens"
Escapes on foot through the South of France, where he rejoins his wife and daughter
|1941||May: Emigration from Marseille to the United States on the SS Winnipeg with the help of Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee; takes with him his negatives and a selection of prints
Continues to photograph street scenes and portraits, now also using the Rolleiflex
|1943||Birth of son Peter|
|1950||Severe hip pain forces him to give up street photography|
|1952||Gains US citizenship|
|1958||First trip to Germany after fleeing 25 years earlier|
|1967||Fred Stein dies in New York on 27 September, aged fifty-eight|
Sociology of the Street
In the cities of his emigration – Paris in the 1930s, New York from the 1940s on – Fred Stein shot countless street scenes, including pictures of the Jewish quarters.
As well as classic views of the two metropolises, he created many milieu studies and character portraits. Embedded in a sociological context of poverty and ordinary urban lives, they show road workers, sales assistants, homeless people, and family scenes.
Fred Stein’s gaze unites the everyday with a sense of the extraordinary moment. His pictures often show flashes of humor.
Psychology of the Portrait
Before taking his portrait photographs, Fred Stein always tried to get to know the person. He thought about their work and ideas. At times, the picture itself took second place to heated discussions. It was often only at the end of a session that the photograph was finally taken. Many of Stein’s portraits show the traces of these conversations.
More than 1,200 portraits were created in this way. Today, they read like a Who’s Who of prominent twentieth-century personalities. Fred Stein did not use dramatic light effects or retouch his negatives. For him, the point of portrait photography was to “create (through the medium of photography) a substitute for the living human being, a picture that says something about the outer and inner person,” as he explained in a letter.
Portrait Photographs by Fred Stein
An exhibition at the Jewish Museum Berlin, curated by Theresia Ziehe and Jihan Radjai.
For their generous support, we would like to thank Peter Stein, Dawn Freer, and the Embassy of the United States of America.